Adam Blatner

Words and Images from the Mind of Adam Blatner

Bibliography on Alphabets and Writing Systems

Originally posted on February 17, 2011

(Please also see my comments on “Scriptology“)

Also sections near the bottom on:

Adkins, Lesley & Roy. (2000). The keys of Egypt: The obsession to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs. New York: HarperCollins.

Aguirre, Manuel. (1961). La escritura en el mundo. Madrid: Libreria Reliex. (mongol, semphore, berber, p 123, lolo)

Alexandre, Pierre. (1972). Languages and Language in Black Africa. (Translat. by F.A. Leary). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Allen, Julie D. et al. (2007). The Unicode Standard 5.0. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Alphabets & Scripts of Ancient Times & Other Lands. (1969). Berlin: Bundesdruckeim.

Astle, T. (1803). The origin and progress of writing. London: Benley. (Reprinted in 1973 by the AMS Press in New York.)

Baines, John; Bennet, Joh; & Houston, Stephen. (2008). The disappearance of writing systems: perspectives on literacy and communication. London: Equinox Publishing.

Ballhorn, F. (1861). Grammatography: A manual of reference to the alphabets of ancient and modern languages. London: Trubner & Co.

Baurmann, J., Günther, KB, & Knoop, U. (1988). Aspekte von Schrift und Schriftlichkeit. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms Verlag.

Bazerman, Charles (Ed.). (2008). Handbook of research on writing: history, society, school, individual, text. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates / Taylor & Francis.

Berlitz, Charles. (1982). Native Tongues. New York: Grosset & Dunlap.

Bernal, Martin. (1990). Cadmean letters. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

Blatner, Adam. (1989). Commentary: A call for “Scriptology.” Visible Language, 22(4), 415.

Bliss, C.K. (1965) Semantography (Blissymbolics): A logical writing for an illogical world (2nd Ed.). Sydney, Australia: Semantography Publications.

Bodmer, Frederick. (1944). The loom of language. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Bonfante, Larissa. (1990). Etruscan. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Brown, Michelle P. (1998). The British Library guide to writing and scripts: history and technique. Toronto: University of Toronto Press/ London: The British Library.

Buhler-Oppenheim, Kristin. (1971). Signs, Brands, Marks. New York: Communication Arts Books.

Burns, Alfred. (1989). The power of the written word: The role of literacy in the history of Western civilization. New York: Peter Lang.

Canepari, Luciano. (1983). Phonetic notation. Venice (“Venezia), Italy: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina.

Carter, M. L. & Schoville, K. N. (Eds.) (1984). Sign, symbol, script: An exhibition on the origins of writing and the alphabet. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Casson, Lionel. (October, 1988). howandwhypunctuationevercametobeinvented. Smithsonian, 19(7), 216.

Castillo-Gomez, Antonio. (2006). Entre la pluma y la pared: historia social de la escritura. Madrid: Ediciones Akal. (in Spanish, mainly about the history of Writing in Spain, focusing on the medieval through around the 17th century)

Chadwick, John. (1990a). Linear B and related scripts. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Chadwick, John. (1990b). The decipherment of Linear B. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Chappell, Warren. (1975). The living alphabet. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Chiera, Edward (1938). They wrote on clay. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Christin, Anne-Marie (Ed.). (2002). A history of writing: from hieroglyph to multi-media. Paris?: Flammarion.
This new large anthology has many interesting articles. Translated from the French (Histoire de l’ecriture), first published in 2001.

Claiborne, Robert (1974). The birth of writing. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books.

Cleator, P.E. (1961). Lost languages. New York: John Day.

Clodd, Edward. (1904). The story of the alphabet. New York: McClure, Phillips & Co.

Cohen, Marcel. (1958). La grande invention de l’ecriture et son evolution. Paris: Imprimiere Nationale.

Coulmas, F. & Ehlich, K. (1983) Writing in focus. (Trends in Linguistics–Monograph 24), ed. by W.Winter. Berlin/New York: Mouton.

Coulmas, Florian. (1989). The writing systems of the world. Oxford & New York: Basil Blackwell.

Coulmas, Florian. (2003). Writing systems: an introduction to their linguistic analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Dahlberg, Wolfgang. (1984). The alphabet: Pattern, history and perspective of the earliest classification system. International Classification, 11(1), 13-20.

Daniels, Peter T. (2001). Writing systems (Chapter 3, pp 43-80). In Mark Aronoff & Janie Rees-Miller (Eds.), Handbook of linguistics. Malden, MA:  Blackwell Publisher.

Daniels, Peter T. & Bright, William (Eds.). (1996). The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press. (Clearly the most comprehensive book on the subject.)

Davies, W.V. (1988). Egyptian hieroglyphs. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Dean, J.L. (1991). Alphabet Chart. Bradford, NH: Author.

DeFrancis, John. (1989). Visible speech: The diverse oneness of writing systems. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Delpire, Robert (Ed.). (1961). L’ecriture. Paris: Encyclopedie Essentielle.

DeKerckhove, Derrick & Lumsden, Charles J. (Eds.) (1988). The alphabet and the brain: The lateralization of writing. Berlin:Springer-Verlag

Diringer, David. (1968). The Alphabet: A key to the history of mankind. (Vols. 1 & 2) (3rd Ed.). New York: Funk & Wagnalls. (or, London: Hutchinson).

Diringer, David. (1977). A history of the alphabet. Old Woking, Surrey, England: Unwin Brothers, Ltd.

Doblehofer, Ernst. (1961). Voices in stone: The decipherment of ancient scripts and writings. New York: Viking.

Donaldson, Timothy. (2008). Shapes for sounds: why alphabets look like they do…  New York: Mary Batty Publisher.  (A beautiful book!!)

Driver, Godfrey Rolles.. (1976). Semitic writing: From pictograph to alphabet. (Revised ed.) London: Oxford University Press.

Drucker, Johanna. (1995). The alphabetic labyrinth: The letters in history and imagination. London: Thames & Hudson.

Drucker, Johanna. (1998). Figuring the word: Essays on books, writing, and visual poetics. New York: Granary Books.

Fabre, Maurice. (1963). A history of communication. New York: Hawthorne. (Vol.9 of series, History of Science & Invention)

Fairbank, Alfred. (1970). The story of handwriting: Origins and development. New York: Watson-Guptill.

Firmage, Richard A. (1993). The alphabet abecedarium: Some notes on letters. Boston: David R. Godine.

Fischer, Steven Roger. (2001). A history of writing. London: Reaktion Books.

Fisher, Leonard E. (197?). Letter Art. New York: Four Winds Press.

Fisher, Leonard E. (1982). Number Art. New York: Four Winds Press.

Fisher, Leonard E. (1985). Symbol Art. New York: Four Winds Press.

Fishman, Joshua (Ed.) (1977). Advances in the creation and revision of writing systems. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton & Co.

Foreman, Grant. (1938) Sequoyah. (Vol.16, The Civilization of the American Indian Series.) Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Fraenkel, Gerd. (1965). Writing systems. Boston: Ginn & Co.

Friedrich, Johannes. (1966). Geschichte der Schrift. Heidelberg, Germany: Carl Winter/Universitats Verlag.

Frutiger, Adrian. (1989). Signs and Symbols: Their design and meaning. (Transl. by Andrew Bluhm.) New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Fry, Edmund. (1970). Pantographia. Los Angeles: Sherwin & Freutel. (A facsimile of a book first published in 1799.)

Gabrial, Brian (2008). History of writing technologies (Chapter 2, pp. 23-33). In Bazerman anthology, see above.

Ganguly, Subrata. (2004). Symbol, script and writing: from petrogram to printing and further… Dehli: Sharada. (ISBN 81-85934-07-0). (At end, an appeal for the conversion of the many different scripts in India to a Roman script.)

Gaur, Albertine. (1984). A history of writing. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Gaur, Alberine. (2000). Literacy and the politics of writing. Bristol, UK; Portland, OR: Intellect Books.

Gelb, I.J. (1963, 1974). A study of writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gerstner, Karl. (1974). Compendium for literates. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

Gilyarevsky, R.S. & Grivnin, VS (1970). Languages identification guide. Moscow: Nauka Publishing

Glassner, Jean-Jacques. (2003). The invention of cuneiform: writing in Sumer. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Glück, Helmut. (1987). Schrift und Schriftlichkeit: Eine Sprach-und Kulturwissenschaftlich Studie. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Gnanadesikan, Amalia E. (2009). The writing revolution: cuneiform to the internet. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Godin, Seth (1993). The smiley dictionary: Cool things to do with your keyboard. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press.

Goody, Jack. (See books on Literacy)

Gordon, Cyrus H. (1982). Forgotten scripts: Their ongoing discovery and decipherment  (Revised and enlarged from earlier 1982 edition). New York: Basic Books.

Gunther, Hartmut & Ludwig, Otto (Eds). (1994). Writing and its use: An interdisciplin-ary handbook of international research. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Haarmann, Harald. (1998). Universal-geschichte der Schrift. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.

Haas, W. (Ed.) (1969). Alphabets for English. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.

Haas, W. (Ed.) (1976). Writing without letters. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.

Harris, Roy. (1986). The origin of writing. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., Ltd.

Havelock, Eric A. (1976). Origins of western literacy. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Healy, John F. (1991). The early alphabet. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Helfman, Elizabeth S. (1981). Blissymbolics: Speaking without speech. New York: Elsevier/Nelson Books.

Helfman, Elizabeth S. (197?). Signs & Symbols around the world.

Holmes, Ruth B. & Smith, Betty S. (1978). Beginning Cherokee. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Hofsinde, Robert. (196?). Indian picture writing. New York: William Morrow & Co. (p90, The Cree Alphabet).

Hofstadter, Douglas R. (1985). Metamagical themas: Questing for the essence of mind and pattern. New York: Basic Books.

Hofstadter, Douglas R. (1988). Doughalese & the Semiotic Mystery. Eureka, 48, 57-64. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Mathematical Society.

Hofstadter, Douglas. (1995). Letter spirit, in fluid concepts and creative analogies: Computer models of the fundamental mechanisms of thought. New York: Basic Books/HarperCollins. pp 401-466

Hooker, J.T. (Ed.). (1990). Reading the past: Ancient writing from cuneiform to the alphabet. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hoskins, R.F. & Meredith-Owens, G.M. (1966). A handbook of Asian scripts. London: The Trustees of the British Museum.

Houston, Stephen D. (Ed.). (2004). The first writing: Script invention as history and process. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Humez, Alexander & Nicholas. (1981). Alpha to Omega: The life and times of the Greek alphabet. Boston: David R. Godine.

Humez, Alexander & Nicholas. (1985). A B C et cetera: The life and times of the Roman alphabet. Boston: David R. Godine.

Humez, Alexander & Nicholas. (2008). On the dot: the speck that changed the world. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.

Hutchinson, James. (1983). Letters. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Illich, Ivan & Sanders, Barry. (1988). The alphabetization of the popular mind. San Francisco: North Point Press.

International Phonetic Association. (1999).  Handbook of the IPA: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Irwin, Keith Gordon. (1961). The romance of writing. New York: Viking.

Jean, Georges. (1992–English translation). Writing: The story of alphabets and scripts. New York: Discoveries/Harry N. Abrams.

Jackson, Donald. (1981). The story of writing. New York: Taplinger Publishing Co. (parker pen co.)

Jensen, Hans. (1969). Sign, symbol, & script: An account of man’s efforts to write (3rd Ed.). New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Kannaiyan, I. (1956). Scripts in and around India. Madras: Madras Government Museum.

Katzner, Kenneth. (1986). The languages of the world (Revised). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Kellogg, Rhoda. (1970). Analyzing children’s art. Palo Alto: National Press Books.

Kim-Renaud, Young-Key. (2009).  Korean: An Essential Grammar. London: Routledge. (She is also the author of other books.),

Kim-Renaud, Young-Key. (Ed.) (1997) The Korean Alphabet: Its History and Structure. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. (The editor herself wrote the Introduction and  some chapters.)

Klausner, Janet. (1993). Sequoyah’s gift: A portrait of the Cherokee leader. New York: HarperCollins.

Kluh, J.M. (1922). The etymologic cipher alphabet. Chicago: J.M. Kluh. (in Perry Castaneda Library at U.T.Austin)

LeGuin, Ursula. (1985). Always coming home. New York: Harper & Row. (Invented the “Kesh” alphabet, in Appendix of the novel.)

Logan, Robert K. (1986). The alphabet effect. New York: William Morrow & Co.

Machet, Anne (Ed.). (1982). Ecriture, typographie, pedagogie: Proceedings of the International Center for Applied Linguistics. Besancon, France: L’Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Besancon.

Man, John. (2000). Alpha Beta: How 26 Letters Shaped the Western World. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Manguel, Alberto. (1996). A history of reading. New York: Viking/Penguin.

Martin, Henri-Jean. (1999). The history and power of writing. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. (First published in France in 1988.)

Martlew, Margaret. (1983). The psychology of written language: Developmental and educational perspectives. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Mason, William. (1920). History of the art of writing. New York: The McMillan Co.

McGrath, Alister. (2001). In the beginning: The story of the King James Bible. New York: Doubleday/Random House.

Mercer, Samuel A.B. (1951). The origin of writing and our alphabet. London: Luzac & Co.

Mercer, Samuel A. (1961). Assyrian grammar. New York: Frederick Ungar.

Miller, Jonathan. (1971). Marshall McLuhan. New York: Viking.

Moore, Hyatt (Ed). (1991). The alphabet makers. Huntington Beach, CA: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Moorhouse, A.C. (1953). The triumph of the alphabet: A history of writing. New York: Henry Schuman.

Moran, Hugh A. & Kelley, David H. (1969). The alphabet & the ancient calendar signs. Palo Alto, CA: Daily Press.

Morison, Stanley. (1972). Politics and script: Aspects of authority and freedom. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Moss, Miriam. (1988). Language and writing. New York: The Bookwright Press. (Children’s book)

Myller, Rolf. (1980). Symbols and their meaning. New York: Atheneum.

Nakanishi, Akira. (1980).Writing systems of the world: Alphabets, syllabaries, pictograms. Rutland, VT: Chas. E. Tuttle.

Nasr, Seyyed H. (1987). The spritual message of Islamic calligraphy. Albany: SUNY Press.

Naveh, Joseph. (1982). Early history of the alphabet. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press/ Hebrew University.

Nilsen, Don L. & A.P. (1978). Language play. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Noel, Ruth S. (1974, 1980). The languages of Tolkien’s Middle-Earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Norman, James. (1975). Ancestral Voices: Decoding ancient languages. New York: Four Winds Press.

Ogg, Oscar. (1940). An alphabet sourcebook. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Ogg, Oscar. (1971). The 26 letters. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Ong, Walter J. (1986). (see literacy)

Olson, David R. (1994). The world on paper. The conceptual and cognitive implications of writing and reading. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Oppenheim, Joanne. (1979). Sequoyah: Cherokee hero. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates.

Ouaknin, Marc-Alain. (1999). Mysteries of the alphabet: The origins of writing. New York: Abbeville Press.

Page, R.I. (1987). Runes: Reading the past (Vol.4). Berkeley: University of California Press/ The Trustees of the British Museum.

Petrucci, Armand. 1993. Public Lettering: Script, Power & culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Poortvliet, Rien & Huygen, Wil. (1982). Secrets of the Gnomes. New York: Harry N. Abrams/ Ballantine. (Suggests a gnomes’ “red hat” alphabet that was the basis for cuneiform.)

Pope, Maurice. (1975). The story of archaeological decipherment. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Powell, Barry B. (2009). Writing: theory and history of the technology of civilization.  Chichester UK: Wiley-Blackwell

Pullum, Geoffrey K. & Ladusaw, William A. (1986). Phonetic symbol guide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rahi, Ishwar Chandra. (1977). World alphabets: Their origin & development. Katra, Allahabad, India: Bharagava Printing.

Rees, Ennis. (1968). The little Greek alphabet book. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Reisner, R. (1971). Graffiti: Two thousand years of wall writing. New York: Cowles Books.

Rendell, D.& K. (1979). The ancient world: Early writing from Mesopotamia and Egypt, 3100 B.C.–800 A.D. (a catalog). Newton, MA: D. & K. Rendell.

Reynolds, Henry J. (1938). The world’s oldest writings. Chicago: The Antiquitas Corp.

Reynolds, Lloyd J. (1979). Straight impressions. Woolwich, ME: TBW Books.

Robinson, Andrew. (1995). The story of writing. London: Thames & Hudson.

Robinson, Andrew. (2002). Lost languages: The enigma of the world’s undeciphered scripts. New York: Nevraumont/McGraw-Hill.  (Nice references!)

Rodgers, Carl T. (1965?) Braille. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Rogers, Henry. (2005). Writing systems: a linguistic approach. Oxford, UK, & Malden, MA: Blackwell

Röhr, Heinz Markus. (1994). Writing: Its evolution and relation to speech. Bochum, Germany: Universitätsverlag

Rovin, Jeff. (1981). Transgalactic guide to solar system M-17. New York: Perigee/G.P. Putnam’s.  (Some imagined alphabets from other planets)

Sacks, David. (2003). Language visible: unraveling the mystery of the alphabet from a to z. New York: Broadway Books.    (A very nice and current review!)

Saljo, Roger (Ed.). (1988). The written word: Studies in literate thought and action. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Samoyault, Tiphaine. (1998). Alphabetical order: How the alphabet began. New York: Viking/Penguin.

Sampson, Geoffrey. (1985). Writing systems: A linguistic introduction. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Sass, Benjamin (2005). The alphabet at the turn of the millennium: The west semitic alphabet ca. 1150 – 805 BCE –the antiquity of the Arabian, Greek, and Phrygian alphabets. Tel Aviv: ? press.

Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. (1992). Before writing. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Shmandt-Besserat, D. & Erard, Michael (2008). Origins and forms of writing (Chapter 1, pp 7-22). In Bazerman’s anthology (see above).

Scinto, Leonard F.M. (1986). Written language and psychological development. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Scott, Kim (Ed.). (1981). Inversions: A catalog of calligraphic cartwheels. Peterborough, NH: BYTE Books (McGraw Hill).

Scribner, S. & Cole, M. (1981). The psychology of literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Sears, Peter. (1986). Secret writing: Keys to the mysteries of reading and writing. New York: Teachers & Writers Collaborative.

Senner, Wayne M. (Ed.). (1989). The origins of writing. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Siso Young-o-sa. (1983). The Korean language. (Korean National committee for UNESCO). Arch Cape, OR: Pace International Research Inc.

Sloboda, John. (1981) The uses of space in music notation. Visible Language, 15(1), 86-110.

Smalley, William A. et al. (1964). Orthography studies, Vol 6. Articles on new writing systems. London: United Bible Society.

Sommer, F.E. (1942). The Arabic writing in five lessons. New York: Frederick Ungar.

Spencer, Herbert. (1968). The visible word. New York: Visual Communications Books/Hastings House.

Spencer, Herbert. (1969). Pioneers of modern typography. New York: Hastings House/ Visual Communications Books.

Stevens, John. (1981). Sacred calligraphy of the East. Boulder, CO: Shambhala.

Stiebner, Erhardt D. & Leonhard, Walter. (1977). Bruckmann’s handbuch der schrift. Munich (Munchen), Germany: F. Bruckmann

Stryker-Rodda, Harriet. (1986). Understanding colonial handwriting. Baltimore: Geneological Publishing.

Swann, Donald, & Tolkien, J.R.R. (1978). The road goes ever on: A song cycle (2nd ed., revised). New York: Houghton-Mifflin.

Thornton, Tamara Plakins. (1996). Handwriting in America: A cultural history. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Top, Alsexander. (1603/1971?). The olive leaf. (A facsimile) Menston, England: The Scolar Press, Ltd.

Tschichold, Jan. (1948). An illustrated history of writing and lettering. New York: Columbia University Press.

Tsuen-Hsuin, Tsien. (1962). Written on bamboo and silk: The beginnings of chinese books and inscriptions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Turbayne, C.M. (1983?). Metaphors for the mind. In R. Rudner & I. Scheffler (Eds.), Logic & art: Essays in honor of Nelson Goodman. ? Publisher

Ullman, B.L. (1963). Ancient writing and its influence. New York: Cooper Square Publishers.

UNESCO. (1965). The art of writing. Germany: United Nations Educational, Social, and Cultural Organization.

Vachek, Josef. (1989). Written language revisited. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (functional linguistics Prague school.

Vandendorpe, Christian. (2009). From papyrus to hypertext: toward the universal digital library. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. (Translated from the French by Phyllis Aronoff & Howard Scott.)

Walker, C.B.F. (1987). Cuneiform: Reading the past (Vol.3). Berkeley: University of California Press/ The Trustees of the British Museum
Watt, W.C. (Ed.). (1994). Writing systems and cognition: Perspectives from psychology, physiology, linguistics, and semiotics. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Welman, William S. (1973). African language structure. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wemyss, Stanley. (1950). The languages of the world. Philadelphia: Author.

Whiteman, M.F. (Ed.) (1981). Writing: The nature, development, and teaching of written communication. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum.

Whittick, Arnold. (1961). Symbols, signs, and their meaning. Newton, MA. Charles T. Branford Co.

Wolf, Maryanne. (2007). Proust and the squid: the story and science of the reading brain. New York: HarperCollins.

Written Language & Literacy. A journal begun around 1998. Published by John Benjamins Publishing Company. Editor: William Bright.

Zapf, Hermann (1970). About alphabets: Some marginal notes on type design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Bielewicz, Julian A. (1976). Secret languages: Communicating in codes and ciphers. New York: Elsevier/Nelson.

Brumbaugh, Robert S. (Ed.) (1978). The most mysterious manuscript: The Voynich “Roger Bacon” cipher manuscript. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 1500s, 200 pages magic & scientific allusions.

Butler, William S. & Keeny, L. Douglas. (2001). Secret messages: Concealment, codes, and other types of ingenious communication. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Friedman, W.F. (ed.) (1976). Cryptography and cryptanalysis. (Articles from journal, 1925-1940s). Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press. (po box 3837, zip 92653

Garden, Nancy. (1981). The kids’ code and cipher book. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Gardner, Martin. (1972). Codes, ciphers and secret writing. New York? Dover)

Haldane, R.A. (1976). The hidden world. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Janeczko, Paul B. (1984). Loads of codes and secret ciphers. New York: MacMillan.

Kahn, David. (1967). The codebreakers: The story of secret writing. New York: MacMillan. (thick book.)

O’Hare, Jeffrey A. (1997). Secret codes and hidden messages. Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press. (Kid’s book).

Peterson, John. (1966). How to write codes and send secret messages. New York: Scholastic Book Services.

Pickover, Clifford A. (2000). Cryptorunes : codes and secret writing. Rohnert Park, CA: Pomegranate.

Way, Peter. (1977). Codes and ciphers. London: Aldus Books.

Wrixon, Fred B. (1989). Codes, ciphers, and secret languages. London: Harrap Books.


Ray, John. (2007). The Rosetta Stone and the rebirth of ancient Egypt. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Gullberg, Jan. (1997). Mathematics from the birth of numbers. New York: W.W. Norton.

Ifrah, Georges. (1985). From one to zero: A universal history of numbers. New York: Viking/Penguin.

Ifrah, Georges. (2000). The universal history of numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer. (Translated from the French by D. Bellos et al.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Menninger, Karl. (1977). Number words and number symbols: A cultural history of numbers (Revised Ed.) Cambridge, MA: M.I.T.Press.


Baron, Naomi S. (1981). Speech, writing, & sign: A functional view of linguistic representation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Baumann, Gerd (Ed.). (1986). The written word: Literacy in transition. Oxford: Clarendon.

Bowman, Alan K. & Woolf. (1994). Literacy and power in the ancient world. Cambridge University Press.

Finnegan, Ruth. (1988). Literacy and orality: Studies in the technology of communication. New York: Basil Blackwell.

Goody, Jack. (1977). The domestication of the savage mind. Cambridge, Enland: Cambridge University Press. (Note esp, chap 5, “What is in a list?”, pp 74-111.)

Goody, Jack. (1986). The logic of writing and the organization of society. Cambridge (Great Britain): Cambridge University Press.

Goody, Jack. (1987). The interface between the written and the oral. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Goody, Jack. (2000). The power of the written tradition. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Ong, Walter J. (1982). Orality and literacy. New York: Methuen.

Olson, David R. (1994). The world on paper. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Stephens, Mitchell. (1998). The rise of the image, the fall of the word.  New York: Oxford University Press. 198 Madison Ave. Ny 10016.

Lettering, Typography, Calligraphy:

Anderson, Donald M. (1969/1992). Calligraphy: The art of written forms. New York: Dover.

Baker, Arthur. (1975). Calligraphy. New York: Dover.

Biegeleisen, J. I. (1982). Handbook of typefaces and lettering. New York: Arco

Blumenthal, Joseph. (1982). Typographic years: A printer’s journey through a half century 1925-1975. New York: Frederic C. Beil

Folsom, Rose. (1990). The calligrapher’s dictionary. London: Thames & Hudson.

Gaur, Albertine. (1994). A history of calligraphy. New York: Cross River Press.

Gordon, Maggie. (1974). Alphabets & Images: Inspiration from letterforms. London: B.T. Batsford.

Goudy, Frederic W. (1942). The alphabet and elements of lettering. (Revised Ed.) Berkely, CA: University of California Press. (1st in 1918)

Grafton, Carol B.(Ed.) (1982?). Bizarre and ornamental alphabets. New York: Dover.

Gray, E.? (1982). Lettering as drawing. New York: Taplinger/ Pentalic. Calligraphy Review
Gray, Nicolete. (1986). A history of lettering. Boston: David R. Godine.

Haley, Allan. (1995),. Alphabet: The history, evolution, and design of the lettes we use today. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications/ BPI.

Hornung, Clarence. (?197?). Lettering from A to Z. New York: Wm. Penn Publishing.

Larcher, Jean. (1976). Fantastic alphabets: 24 original alphabets. New York: Dover.

Jury, David. (2008). History of typography (Chapter 3, pp. 35-63). In Bazerman’s anthology, see above.

Lai, T.C. (1973). Chinese calligraphy: An introduction. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Larcher, Jean. (1976). Fantastic alphabets: 24 original alphabets. New York: Dover.

Lawther, Gail & Christopher. (1987). You can learn lettering and calligraphy. Cincinnati, OH: North Light Books.

Long, Jean. (1987). The art of Chinese calligraphy. Dorset, NY: Blandford/Sterling.

Meggs, Philip B. (1983). A history of typography. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Mote, Frederick W. & Chu, Hung-lam. (1989). Calligraphy and the East Asian book. Boston: Shambhala.

Nasr, Seyyed H. (1987). The spritual message of Islamic calligraphy. Albany: SUNY Press.

Nesbitt, Alexander. (1957). The history & technique of lettering. New York: Dover.

Potter, Tony. (1987). Lettering & Typography. London: Usborne.

Schimmel, Anne Marie. (1983). Calligraphy and Islamic culture. New York: N.Y.U. Press.

Shepherd, Margaret. (1984). Calligraphy now: New light on traditional letters. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Solomon, Martin. (1994). The art of typography: An introduction to Typo.icon.ography. New York: Art Direction Book Co.

Wong, Frederick. (1980). The complete calligrapher. New York: Watson-Guptill.


Benson, Elizabeth B. & Griffin, Billet. (1988). Maya Iconography. Princeton University Press.

Coe, Michael D. & Van Stone, Mark. (2001). Reading the Maya glyphs. New York: Thames & Hudson.

Coulter, Laurie. (2001 ). Secrets in stone: All about Maya hieroglyphs.  Boston: Little, Brown & Co./ Madison Press.

Houston, S.D. (1989). Maya glyphs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press/British Museum.

Marcus, Joyce. (February, 1980). Zapotec writing. Scientific American, 242(2), 50-64.

Stuart, David, & Houston, Stephen D. (August, 1989). The Mayan Writing. Scientific American, 261(2), 82-89.

Thompson, J.E.S. (1971). Maya hieroglyphic writing: An introduction. Tulsa?: University of Oklahoma Press.

Miscellaneous Notes:

Conkey, Margaret W. & Hastorf, Christine A. (1990). The use of style in archaeology. Cambridge U. Press.

Deely, John. (1990). Basics of semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Cherry, Colin. (1957). On human communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

ref Wilson, Tom. (1984). Ziggy Cartoon about pet from foreign country has pet speaking in symbols.

Geisel, Theo. On Beyond Zebra.

Rockwell, Gail (illustrator). (1974). Sgt. Buck Slasher: Action Packed Battle Comic. In Tom Rockwell, The Portmanteau Book.

In Russian:
Loukotka, Chestmir, (1950) “Razvitiye Pusima.” Moscow. Univ. of Washington Library

Find full reference…
Fairservis, Walter A., Jr. (197?). The script of the Indus Valley civilization. Scientific American.

Wallace, A., Wallechinsky, D., & Wallace, I. (1983). The Book of lists #3. New York: Wm. Morrow & Co.

Wallechinsky, D. & Wallace, I. (1981). The People’s almanac #3. New York: Wm. Morrow & Co.

Wang, William S-Y. (1982?). The Chinese language. Scientific American.